Emma and Charles had ten children. Here is information about their children, seven of whom reached adulthood.
According to Cornell, "Almost all of Darwin’s children, as well as his adored dogs, played a role in his research."
- William Erasmus Darwin: Born on December 27, 1839. William became a banker and married Sara Price Ashburner from New York. William died on September 8, 1914.
- Anne Elizabeth Darwin: Born March 2, 1841. Annie died when she was ten years old on April 23, 1851. A box of her keepsakes saved by Charles and Emma was discovered in 2000. Annie's Box: Darwin, His Daughter, and Human Evolution by Randal Keynes.
- Mary Eleanor Darwin: Born September 23, 1842. Mary died on October 16, 1842 when she was three weeks old.
- Henrietta Emma "Etty" Darwin: Born on September 25, 1843. Etty married Richard Buckley Litchfield in 1871. Their marriage lasted until his death in 1903. Etty died in 1930.
- Sir George Howard Darwin: Born on July 9, 1845. An astronomer and mathematician, George married Martha du Puy. They had four children. George died at the age of 67 on December 7, 1912.
- Elizabeth "Bessy" Darwin: Born July 8, 1847. Elizabeth never married. She died in 1926.
- Sir Francis Darwin: Born on August 16, 1848. Frank was married three times and widowed twice. A botanist, Frank died on September 19, 1925.
- Major Leonard Darwin: Born January 15, 1850. Leonard was married twice. Leonard, a soldier, politician, and economist, died on March 26, 1943.
- Sir Horace Darwin: Born May 13, 1851. Horace married Emma Cecilia Farrer and they had three children. A civil engineer, Horace died on September 29, 1928.
- Charles Waring Darwin: Born December 6, 1856. Charles died from scarlet fever at the age of 18 months on June 18, 1858.
Deborah Heiligman: "... the death of their beloved 10-year-old daughter, Annie, broke their hearts. That loss could have driven them apart forever. It strengthened Emma's faith and all but closed the door on God for Charles. But they fought for their marriage. The day after Annie died, Emma wrote to Charles, "You must remember that you are my prime treasure (and always have been)."
Source: Deborah Heiligman. "The Darwins' marriage of science and religion." LATimes.com. 1/29/2009.
Henrietta Litchfield: "The poor little baby [Charles Waring Darwin] was born without its full share of intelligence. Both my father and mother were infinitely tender towards him, but, when he died in the summer of 1858, after their first sorrow, they could only feel thankful. He had never learnt to walk or talk."
Source: Source: Henrietta E. Litchfield. "Chap. XII." Emma Darwin, A century of family letters, 1792-1896. page 162.